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SEO is the process and practice of optimizing your website so that it ranks well on search engine results pages (or SERPs). here are some common mistakes that people make while optimizing their sites for search engines. These mistakes will lead to a fall in ranking in search engines. Here are some common mistakes that will affect search engine positioning.

1. Incorrectly Designed Websites: Lack of proper navigation, use of frames and large graphics will affect the search engine positioning. Search engine spiders can actually be blocked from crawling sites that are not well-designed. Use of images and other script languages are also not search engine friendly. Make your useful links in HTML. Large image size will cause more time to download pages. Make your images in more pieces so it will take less time than single image. Make low resolution file where high resolution graphics are not required.Consider thumbnails ans open it in separate windows instead of using large images.
2. Poorly written content: Content is the single largest factor for high ranking in search engines. Quality of content is a very important factor. In addition, your content absolutely must have targeted keywords and phrases. Use those words frequently throughout your content and also include them in bold or italics to show search engine that those words are important.Another common mistake made by some SEO professional is their choice of keywords placed in the META keyword tag. Make sure it might seem logical to your content.
3. Replica of Content: Don't copy content from other websites. It will cause the search engines to consider your site as spamming and it will result to penalty or low ranking.
4. Improper use of Meta Tags : Use of improper meta tags will misguide the search engine and cause improper listing of your website. Meta tags are used to include Keyword and description tags. Meta tags help search engines for quick search.It is also helpful to increase ranking in search engines.Use your title tag, URL, and H1 tags when optimizing site. In a website these are the three most simple and most important for search engine, when it comes to search engine optimization.
5. Absence of Site map: It is very important to include a site map in the website to help searcher and search engine. Sitemap will assist web crawlers to index websites more efficiently and effectively. The site map drives the search engine to go directly to the page instead of search for links. This helps a lot in optimization of website in search engines. Google site map is an easy way to tell Google about all the pages in your site and which pages are most important.
6. Page Cloaking: The website that contains contents that is specially designed for the search engine is called cloaking site. There are cloaking techniques where the homepage is altered to each and every keyword to make search engine think that your site contains very relevant contents especially designed for the queried keyword or key phrase. Cloaking can result in a penalty that may damage your business as well as ranking.
7. Over optimization: When you prepare content in your site with more numbers of keywords i.e. keyword stuffed body text; having a too high keyword density may cause an over optimization penalty. This also applies to your page title, your Meta description and Meta keywords, as well as the ALT attributes of your images.Try to make website for human being rather than making for search engine robot.
8. Absence of Back Links or broken links: Your site must be link properly. In every page give backlinks to the main page. Do the link building properly and make quality backlinks to your site.
9. Inadequate Marketing Plan: Ranking will not help if you don ’t know what your target market is. Your ranking has to lead with proper marketing strategy that hit your target audience and not just useless hits. Before spending time and money a perfect marketing plan is essential.